1302 Timeline

Timeline created by gisselleruiz
  • Bessemer Process

    Bessemer Process
    The Bessemer Process was a process by which Andrew Carnegie made steel stronger and cheaper; allowed for massive industrial growth of the U.S. Some positive effects of the Bessemer Process are that it cut the prices in half drastically and it was so inexpensive that its use was widespread. This resulted in more railroads. The railroads were now built in steel instead of iron and that was much safer. It could be made in such large quantities after Bessemer's invention.
  • Oil

    The Standard Oil Company was Rockefeller's second oil refinery that was established in Cleveland, Ohio. Once Rockefeller had monopolized the oil industry, it provided 90% of the nation's oil. This monopoly inspired the creation of the Standard Oil Trust. The goal of the company was to have "The best oil at the lowest price." A success of the company was that it controlled 90% of nation's oil refineries by 1832. However, challenges included competition, court cases, and being declared a monopoly.
  • Morrill Land Grant College Act

    Morrill Land Grant College Act
    This law provided a generous grant of public lands to the states for support of education. Land-grant colleges (most became state universities) bound themselves to provided certain services, such as military training. Philanthropists donated immense fortunes to educational enterprises; $150 mil from 1878 to 1898. Cornell and Stanford resulted from this; and many other universities were established from the Act.
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    This act was endorsed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20th 1862. This act reassured western migration by accommodating settlers with 160 acres of public land. In return homesteaders paid a small fee and were required to complete five years of residence and make improvements to the land. On order to secure a grant of land from the government you had to be the head of the family, an american citizen, and at least twenty-one years old. Women could also secure land grants.
  • Promontory Point, Utah

    Promontory Point, Utah
    Promontory Point is a site in Utah where the railway lines built by the Union Pacific and Central Pacific met in 1869, completing the first Transcontinental Railroad line and contributing to the integration of the western territories into the rest of the Union and the development of the Great Plains. The Transcontinental Railroad was completed on 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the Eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the West.
  • Knights of Labor

    Knights of Labor
    The Knights of Labor were founded in 1869 as a secret society of garnet workers in Philadelphia, but emerged as a national movement by 1878. They believed that fraternity was harnessed to labor reform, and intended to set up factories and shops that would lead to a cooperative commonwealth. However, they ended up devoting themselves to education. They welcomed unskilled and semiskilled workers, including women, immigrants, and African Americans. Their goal was to create a cooperative society.
  • Laissez Faire

    Laissez Faire
    Laissez Faire was an economic policy that advocates government staying out of the business sector. It was a theory that everything will even itself out in a completely free market. Its impact on working conditions led to lots of working hours, no working breaks, and unskilled labor with no safety laws. Its impact on wages was that there was no minimum wage, only business owners benefited, and the wealthy get richer while poor get poorer which leads to more of a gap between them.
  • Immigration

    Beginning in the 1870's, immigrants come from Southern and Eastern Europe. i.e. Italy, Greece, Poland, Hungary, and Russia. They were often unskilled, poor, Catholic, Jewish, and likely to settle in cities than on farms. After 1900, they made up more than 70% of all immigrants. Native born Americans feel threatened by these newcomers with different languages and cultures. There was an influx of millions of European immigrants.
  • Battle of Little BigHorn

    Battle of Little BigHorn
    The objective of this battle was to kill Sitting Bull and his followers who were not on the reservations. The U.S. army was split into three groups in order to initiate a three pronged attack. But, there was weaknesses with this plan such as not knowing how many Indians they were facing and no communication among the 3 prongs. Custer ended up getting blamed for his defeat because he refused additional men and ammunition and because e took an alternate route which got him there early.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Chinese Exclusion Act
    The Chinese Exclusion Act was put into place in 1882. It's purpose was to completely stop Chinese immigration. It lasted from 1882 till 1943. Americans wanted Chinese immigrants to stop coming in because they felt threatened by them. Americans felt threatened because they believed that the Chinese immigrants were taking away jobs from Americans. The Chinese Exclusion Act also prevented Chinese already in the country from becoming citizens.
  • Pendleton Act

    Pendleton Act
    The Pendleton Act made campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and it established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of competitive examination; It was basically made to stop political corruption; The civil-service reform forced politicians to gain support and funds from big-business leaders. Banned Federal candidates from requiring that federal employees work on their campaigns or make financial contributions.
  • Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show

    Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show
    The Wild West Show was a colorful entertainment in the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century, which portrayed the West as full of adventure and romance. It rarely depicted the reality of western life. The first of these shows was organized by William F. Cody, also known as "Buffalo Bill". These shows sometimes included fake Indian attacks, and tried to evoke the mythical romance of the Old West. Cody also starred in his own shows, and became famous throughout the nation and Europe.
  • Social Gospel Movement

    Social Gospel Movement
    During the late 19th century there was a Protestant movement preaching that all true Christians should be concerned with the plight of immigrants and other poor residents of American cities and should financially support efforts to improve lives of these poor urban dwellers. Settlement houses were often financed by funds raised by ministers of this movement. It taught religion and human dignity would help the poor over come problems of industrialization.
  • Haymarket Riot

    Haymarket Riot
    After the police fired into the striking crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings. It also harmed the interests of the labor movement. It resulted in the end of the Knights of Labor. This made an impact politically.
  • American Federation of Labor

    American Federation of Labor
    The American Federation of Labor was a union of skilled laborers formed by Samuel Gompers in 1866. The AFL quickly became one of the most powerful unions in the United States. They achieved success by avoiding larger political questions in favor of "bread and butter issues" such as shorter workdays and higher wages for union members. It merged with its rival, the Confederation of Industrial Organizations in 1955 to form AFL-CIO.
  • Dawes Severalty Act

    Dawes Severalty Act
    The Dawes Severalty Act took place on 1887 in Oregon. It was an act that authorized the United States President to divide land into allotments for Indians. The act's significance was to persuade Congress to pass it. Some people wanted the Dawes Severalty Act passed to help out the Indians. They wanted to lift Indians out of poverty and integrate them into the mainstream American society. The outcome of this was that it ended up separating the land of the Indians.
  • Hull House

    Hull House
    Jane Addams was middle class woman. The Hull House is a settlement house that she installed in a ghetto of Chicago. The house inspired many other like settlements across the country, while Addams spent her lifetime battling for garbage removal, playgrounds, better street lighting, and police protection. It was designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions.
  • Sherman Antitrust Act

    Sherman Antitrust Act
    The Sherman Anti-trust Act of 1890 was the first law to limit monopolies in the U.S. This wanted to create a fairer competition in the workforce and to limit any take-over's of departments of merchandise. The intention of the Sherman Anti-trust Act was to control business monopolies that conspire to restrain U.S. trade. In all it prohibited trusts and monopolies. The Sherman Anti-trust Act also made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or other countries.
  • Wounded Knee

    Wounded Knee
    The Battle of Wounded Knee in 1890 after the Ghost Dance spread to the Dakota Sioux. Estimated 100 Indian men, woman and children were killed and 29 invading soldiers. It reveals how much the other people feared the unity/resistance/culture of the Indians. This battle marks the end of the Indian Wars as by then the Indians were all either on reservations or dead. The conflict at Wounded Knee was originally referred to as a battle, but in reality it was a tragic and avoidable massacre.
  • Populist Party

    Populist Party
    The Populist Party was a party that grew out of the Farmers' Alliance. It called for nationalizing the railroads, telephones, and telegraph; instituting a graduated income tax; and creating a new federal sub-treasury, in which harvested crops were stored until crop prices rose. Populists also wanted free and unlimited coinage of silver. The goal of populism was to unite the rich against the poor by uniting the agricultural southwest with the northern working class.
  • Depression of 1893

    Depression of 1893
    The Depression of 1893 was the worst economic downturn for the United States during the 19th Century; It was caused by overbuilding and over-speculation, labor disorders, and the ongoing agricultural depression; The Treasury was required to issue legal tender notes for the silver bullion that it had purchased; Owners of the paper currency would then present it for gold, and by law the notes had to be reissued; This process depleted the gold reserve in the Treasury to less than $100 million.
  • City Beautiful Movement

    City Beautiful Movement
    The City Beautiful Movement was a movement in environmental design that came from the Beaux Arts School. Architects from this movement strove to impart order on hectic industrial centers by creating urban spaces that conveyed a sense of morality and civic pride which many feared was absent from the frenzied new industrial world. Architects and city planners aimed to promote harmony and virtue while beautifying the nation's new urban spaces with
    boulevards, parks, and monumental public buildings
  • Pullman Strike

    Pullman Strike
    This was a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads, which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. It was ended by the President due to the interference with the mail system, and brought a bad image upon unions. Eugene V. Debs led the Pullman strike and founded the American Railway Union. He was imprisoned with his associates for ignoring a federal court injunction to stop striking.
  • Klondike Gold Rush

    Klondike Gold Rush
    A migration by an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1896 and 1899. Gold was discovered there by local miners on August 16, 1896. When news reached Seattle and San Francisco, it triggered a stampede of would-be prospectors. Some became wealthy, but the majority went in vain. The Klondike Gold Rush ended in 1899 after gold was discovered in Nome, Alaska prompting an exodus from the Klondike
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    The state of Louisiana enacted a law that required separate railway cars for blacks and whites. In 1892, Homer Plessy-- who was 1/8 black --took a seat in a "whites only" car of a Louisiana train. He refused to move to the car reserved for blacks and was arrested. The Supreme Court ruled that the "separate but equal" provision of the Louisiana law was constitutional. After this, Jim Crow Laws spread across the US and were heavily enforced in the South.
  • Election of 1896

    Election of 1896
    During the Election of 1896 Republicans were a lot more confident at this time. They tended to have more money and there were problems the democrats were facing. Democrats were facing a division in the party, and they were lacking monetary resources that the republicans have. In the Election of 1896 Governor William McKinley, the Republican candidate, defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan. Republican candidiate in 1896. McKinley supported the gold standard and Bryan supported silver.
  • U.S.S Maine Incident

    U.S.S Maine Incident
    At 9:40 pm on February 16, 1898, the battleship U.S.S. Maine exploded, in Havana Harbor, killing 268 men. Half of the crew escaped, but only 200 bodies were found and 76 identified. This led to the Spanish-American War. This matters to us today because this led to the the Spanish-American War. After the war was won, the U.S obtained three major territories, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. The Spanish-American war lasted approximately 4 months.
  • Battle of Manila Bay

    Battle of Manila Bay
    The Battle of Manila Bay was fought in Manila, Philippines. The American commander was Commodore George Dewey and the Spanish commander was Admiral Patricio Montojo. The battle was fought on My 1st of 1898. The battle was fought because Americans living on the West Coast of the United States feared a Spanish attack at the outbreak of the Spanish-American War. The outcome of the battle was that Americans won with little casualties.
  • Battle of San Juan Hill

    Battle of San Juan Hill
    One of the most important battles of the Spanish-American War. Roosevelt and Rough Riders defeated Spain. Placed America at an advantage. Two days later, American ships destroyed the Spanish fleet in Cuba. In August, the United States and Spain agreed to a treaty ending the war. 208,180 Americans were injured/dead and 58,170 Spanish were injured/dead. On August of 1898, the United States and Spain agreed to a treaty which later ended the war.
  • Philippine-American War

    Philippine-American War
    The Philippine-American War was an armed conflict between the Philippines and the United States from 1899 through 1902. It was a continuation of the Philippine struggle for independence and descended into a savage guerrilla war in which the United States ultimately defeated the Philippine rebels. The war lasted 3 years. Americans tended to see this war as an uprising. Filipinos saw this war As a war to expel a foreign invader.
  • Treaty of Paris 1898

    Treaty of Paris 1898
    The Treaty of Paris 1898 was signed by the United States and Spain in December 1898, this treaty ended the Spanish-American War. Under its terms, Spain recognized Cuba's independence and assumed the Cuban debt; it also ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States. At the insistence of the U.S. representatives, Spain also ceded the Philippines. The Senate ratified the treaty on February 6, 1899.
  • Social Darwinism

    Social Darwinism
    Social Darwinism is a belief that the strongest or fittest should survive and flourish in society while the weak and unfit should be allowed to die. Survival of the fittest enables only superior people to gain wealth and power. The most common man affiliated with Social Darwinism would be Herbert Spencer. Spencer wanted the phrase "Survival of the fittest" to mean the outcome of competition within social groups. Spencer believed that humans produced prosperity through competition.
  • Vertical Integration

    Vertical Integration
    Vertical Integration was pioneered by tycoon Andrew Carnegie. It is when you combine into one organization all phases of manufacturing from mining to marketing. This makes supplies more reliable and improved efficiency. It controlled the quality of the product at all stages of production. Carnegie's goal was to improve efficiency by making supplies more reliable controlling the quality of the product at all stages of production and eliminating the middle man.
  • Horizontal Integration

    Horizontal Integration
    Horizontal Integration was a technique used by John D. Rockefeller. An act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth. He also organized the trust and started the Horizontal Merger. Some effects of horizontal integration was that it reduced competition and it combined with vertical integration
  • W.E.B DuBois

    W.E.B DuBois
    Fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP. W.E.B. DuBois wanted talented blacks to accept nothing less than what they deserved and he directed the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of colored People). Drove for equal rights in many court cases.
  • Election of 1900

    Election of 1900
    The Republicans nominated William McKinley on a platform that advocated imperialism while the Democrats chose William J. Bryan on a platform of free silver. During the election, the Republicans professed the free silver would end U.S. prosperity. McKinley won the election with an overwhelming victory in the urban areas. Bryan ran for the Democrats again, and made the key campaign issue McKinley's foreign policy. Imperialism did not strike a responsive cord with voters, and McKinley won.
  • Theodore Roosevelt

    Theodore Roosevelt
    Theodore Roosevelt was the 26th president which was known for conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War etc. The Square Deal was an economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers. The Hepburn Act used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods.
  • Platt Amendment

    Platt Amendment
    This amendment gave the U.S the right to take over the Island of Cuba if that country entered into a treaty or debt that might place its freedom in danger. This amendment also gave the U.S. the right to put a naval base in Cuba to protect it and the U.S holdings in the Caribbean. This amendment was resented very much by the Cubans. Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the United States the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble.
  • Roosevelt's Corollary

    Roosevelt's Corollary
    Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force. It was a policy that reestablished the Monroe Doctrine and gave policy powers to America. It also showed that America was very powerful. Its significance is that it put America in the position to be taken seriously and show that they had the right to tell Latin America what to do.
  • Russo Japanese War

    Russo Japanese War
    Both Russia and Japan wanted to expand into the Chinese empire. Russia wanted coastline and ports that weren't iced and Japan wanted land and resources for its growing population. In 1898, Chinese granted Russia a 25 year lease on Liaodang Peninsula so that they could expand their Trans-Siberan railway towards Port Arthur (ice free port). The Japanese had briefly held port Arthur in 1895. The war was concluded at a peace conference arranged by President Roosevelt in Portsmouth USA.
  • Pure Food and Drug Act

    Pure Food and Drug Act
    The Food and Drug Act provided authority for federal inspection of meat products, prohibiting adulterated or miss branded food or drugs from interstate commerce. It passed following concern over unsanitary practices in the food and drug industries. It was a key piece of the Progressive Era legislation. Its main purpose was to protect the public against adulteration of food and from products identified as healthful without scientific support. It was passed while Roosevelt was in office.
  • Muckrakers

    Muckrakers was the nickname given to young reporters of popular magazines. These magazines spent a lot of money on researching and digging up "muck," hence the name muckrakers. This name was given to them by President Roosevelt in 1906. These investigative journalists were trying to make the public aware of problems and corruption that needed fixing. They were journalists who wrote about injustices and exposed the filth of society.
  • Meat Inspection Act

    Meat Inspection Act
    The Meat Inspection Act required strict cleanliness requirements for meat packers and created a program of federal meat inspection. It came about in 1906 as a result of president Roosevelt reading Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. Roosevelt appointed a commission of experts. To investigate the meat packing industry. Then the commission issued a report backing up Sinclair's account of the disgusting conditions in the industry.
  • Henry Ford

    Henry Ford
    Henry Ford was the most important industrialist of the 20th century. Henry Ford Introduced the Model T car, Assembly Line, $5.00 a day wage. He also wanted to create a car affordable for the common man. The Model T Car was affordable, it was easy to repair if it broke down, and it initially came in the color green and then later in black. Henry Ford incorporated the Ford Motor Company on June 16th of 1903.
  • Muller v. Oregon

    Muller v. Oregon
    Oregon enacted a law that limited women to ten hours of work in factories and laundries. Muller challenges it after he orders a female employee to work longer hours. The Supreme Court ruled that Oregon's law was constitutional. It was a win for Progressive Reformers but equal-rights feminists were against the ruling. Louis Brandeis argued for the state and he made a brief and got research for how bad working 10 hour days was for women.
  • Great Migration

    Great Migration
    This movement from the South to the North is called the Great Migration. African American workers eagerly left their low-paying jobs as agricultural laborers and domestic servants in the South and headed north in massive numbers. In the major cities of the Midwest and Northeast, they found relatively high paying jobs in meatpacking plants, shipyards, and steel mills. African American Southerners believed that segregation was significantly less intense in the North.
  • Bull Moose Party

    Bull Moose Party
    The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was "fit as a bull moose..."). His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before. The Bull Moose Party was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912. The Bull Moose Party was a nickname for the Progressive Party.
  • Woodrow Wilson

    Woodrow Wilson
    He made the US the most powerful country in world, declared neutrality to get US to mediate end to war, asked for declaration of war, associated power of allies, main goal was to create a new structure of peace, 28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage, Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan etc.
  • Trench Warfare

    Trench Warfare
    A new style of warfare developed in WWI that occurred in the Western Front after miles of trenches were dug in an attempt to protect themselves from the enemy. Trench life was brutal. Soldiers had to live in murky waters and most eventually developed Trench Foot, which is an infection of the feet caused by cold, wet and insanitary conditions. In the trenches, men stood for hours on end without being able to remove wet socks or boots. The feet would gradually go numb and would turn red or blue.
  • Birth Control

    Birth Control
    The demand for birth control rose as women became more active in the labor market. It was all freedom: freedom of action, freedom in love, and now freedom in motherhood. Margaret Sanger placed the birth control issue in the center of the new feminism movement and openly advertised the use of it. She then distributed birth control devices to poor Jewish and Irish women, and was reprimanded. The movement combined the labor radicals, feminists, and cultural modernists for one goal.
  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand- was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. In June 1914, a Serbian nationalist assassinated him and his wife while they were in Sarajevo, Bosnia. This was in protest to Austria-Hungary having control of this region. Serbia wanted to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina. This assassination led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia.
  • KKK

    The "New Klan" focused against foreigners as well as blacks. Simmons would allow only native-born white Protestants into his organization, referred to America's melting pot as a "garbage can." Klan membership rapidly grew to a peak of 5 M members in 1923. Strongest support in the Midwest and South. Wore robes, burned crosses, held rituals, and organized mass demonstrations to protect its ideal of American life from African American, Roman Catholic, Jewish, and immigrant "corruption."
  • Zimmerman Telegram

    Zimmerman Telegram
    A coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmerman, on January 16, 1917, to the German ambassador in Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt, at the height of World War I. The telegram instructed the ambassador to approach the Mexican government with a proposal to form a military alliance against the United States. It was intercepted and decoded by the British and its contents hastened the entry of the United States into World War I.
  • European Alliances

    European Alliances
    The Allied Powers was composed of France, Britain, and Russia, and later Japan and Italy, the Allies fought the Central Powers in World War I. The United States joined the Allies in 1917, and after major economic and military blows, World War I ended with the Treaty of Versailles. The Central Powers, were the Allied Powers opponent during World War I. These countries included Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey.
  • First Red Scare

    First Red Scare
    Most intense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due process, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis, sentenced to death and executed.
  • Russian Revolution

    Russian Revolution
    A series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. This eventually led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its dissolution in 1991.
  • Spanish Flu

    Spanish Flu
    Global outbreak of a deadly type of flu. The movement of soldiers during WWI helped to spread the virus. 20-40% of people in the world are estimated to have become ill with the virus that attacked the young and healthy as well the weak. People sometimes felt fine in the morning and were dead by night. An estimated 675,000 people died in the U.S. and 50 million worldwide.
  • Sedition Act

    Sedition Act
    The Sedition Act brought forth under the Wilson administration, they stated that any treacherous act or draft dodging was forbidden, outlawed disgracing the government, the Constitution, or military uniforms, and forbade aiding the enemy. Makes it illegal for anyone to make false statements that interfered with the prosecution of the war, insulting or abusing the US government, flag constitution or military.
  • Fourteen Points

    Fourteen Points
    Introduced by Wilson in 1918. It was Wilson's peace plan. Each of the points were designed to prevent future wars. He compromised each point at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The only point that remained was the 14th (League of Nations). Each one was appealing to a specific group in the war and each one held a specific purpose.
  • Espionage Act

    Espionage Act
    The Espionage Act was a federal law passed shortly after entrance into WWI, made it a crime for a person to mail or print information that inspired dissent against the American war effort or promoted its enemies. Under the Espionage Act, people could be punished for obstructing military recruitment, or for causing disloyalty or insubordination within the armed forces, or for conspiring to obstruct recruitment or cause insubordination.
  • Henry Cabot Lodge

    Henry Cabot Lodge
    Henry Cabot Lodge was a Republican who disagreed with the Versailles Treaty, and who was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened. Lodge led a group of senators during Woodrow Wilson's presidency known as the "reservationists" during the 1919 debate over the League of Nations. He did not like the idea.
  • League of Nations

    League of Nations
    After the war, Wilson proposed the League in the 14th point of his peace plan. He envisioned it as an Assembly with seats for all nations and a special council for the great powers. The US voted not to join the League because in doing so, it would have taken away our self-determination, and Congress could not decide whether to go to war or not.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    In June 1919, the peacemakers summoned representatives of the new German Republic to the palace of Versailles outside Paris. The Germans were ordered to sign the treaty drawn up by Allies. German reparations would come to over $30 billion dollars. They were forced to assume full responsibility for causing the war. It was composed of only four of the original points made by President Wilson. The treaty punished Germany and did nothing to stop the threat of future wars.
  • Harlem Renaissance

    Harlem Renaissance
    The Harlem Renaissance was a flowering of African-American social thought and culture based in the African-American community forming in Harlem.This period was expressed through visual art, dance, music, literature, poetry, history and politics. African-American artists, writers, and musicians employed culture to work for goals of civil rights and equality. African-American paintings and jazz became absorbed into mainstream culture and crossed racial lines, creating a legacy.
  • Sacco & Vanzetti

    Sacco & Vanzetti
    Italian radicals who became symbols of the Red Scare of the 1920's; arrested (1920), tried and executed (1927) for a robbery/murder, they were believed by many to have been innocent but convicted because of their immigrant status and radical political beliefs. The jury found the two men guilty of the crime. Appeals and petitions were organised but they all failed. In 1977, the verdict against the men was declared unjust.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    The 19th Amendment to the U.S.Constitution granted women the right to vote, prohibiting any U.S. citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920 after a long struggle known as the women’s suffrage movement. It was first drafted in 1878 by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton 30 years after the Seneca Falls Convention, where the idea of women’s suffrage gained prominence in the United States.
  • Teapot Dome Scandal

    Teapot Dome Scandal
    Secretary of the Interior (Albert Fall) leased government land in California and at Teapot Dome, Wyoming to 2 oil executives- Fall became the first Cabinet official to be sent to prison. Albert Fall, who accepted large sums of money and gifts from private oil companies. In exchange, Gall allowed the companies to control government oil reserves in Elk Hills, California, and Teapot Dome Wyoming.
  • Immigration Act of 1924

    Immigration Act of 1924
    The Immigration Act of 1924 was a United States federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the US in 1890, down from the 3% cap set by the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, according to the Census of 1890. It excluded immigration of Asians.The law was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeans who were immigrating in large numbers starting in the 1890s.
  • American Indian Citizenship Act

    American Indian Citizenship Act
    The American Indian Citizenship Act conferred United States citizenship on all Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States. The Act's purpose was to curtail the demand for indigenous identity among Native Americans. Yet even after the Indian Citizenship Act, some Native Americans weren't allowed to vote because the right to vote was governed by state law. 2/3 of Indians already had it through marriage, land ownership and military service.
  • Scopes Monkey Trial

    Scopes Monkey Trial
    Professor John T. Scopes was teaching evolution in Dayton, Tennessee, which was against the law in the fundamentalist Bible Belt South; Defended by nationally know attorney Clarence Darrow; William Jennings Bryan was part of the prosecution; Scopes found guilty and fined $100; hollow victory for Fundamentalists; Bryan died a few days after the trial.
  • Charles Lindbergh

    Charles Lindbergh
    Charles worked as an air mail pilot before he took flight in the competition. The competition guaranteed that the winner would win $25000 to fly from New York to Paris nonstop. The competition was hosted by a hotel owner named Raymond Orteig. Charles named his plane the Spirit of St. Louis, in honor of the manufactures who agreed to make his plane by the specific qualifications need to make the journey. Was 25 y/o and when he arrived in NY most people there didn't think he could pull it off.
  • Black Tuesday

    Black Tuesday
    The day when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange collapsed, becoming a huge factor in the emergence of the Great Depression. Investors traded a record 16.4 million shares. They lost $14 billion on the New York Stock Exchange, worth $199 billion in 2017 dollars.
  • The Brain Trust

    The Brain Trust
    Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end the great depression .Specialists in law, economics, and welfare, many young university professors, who advised President Franklin D. Roosevelt and helped develop the policies of the New Deal. Roosevelt's closest advisors who help him with the programs, Eleanor his wife was is his closest.
  • The Dust Bowl

    The Dust Bowl
    The most visible evidence of how dry the 1930s became was the dust storm. Tons of topsoil were blown off barren fields and carried in storm clouds for hundreds of miles. Technically, the driest region of the Plains – southeastern Colorado, southwest Kansas and the panhandles of Oklahoma and Texas – became known as the Dust Bowl, and many dust storms started there. But the entire region, and eventually the entire country, was affected.
  • Election of 1932

    Election of 1932
    American presidential election held on Nov. 8, 1932, in which Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Republican Pres. Herbert Hoover. The 1932 election was the first held during the Great Depression, and it represented a dramatic shift in the political alignment of the country. Roosevelt's opponent, Republican incumbent Herbert Hoover, was the man many Americans (perhaps unfairly) held personally responsible for their misery.
  • Adjustment Act

    Adjustment Act
    The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) was a federal law passed in 1933 as part of U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal. The law offered farmers subsidies in exchange for limiting their production of certain crops. The subsidies were meant to limit overproduction so that crop prices could increase. After the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the AAA in January 1936, a slightly modified version of the law was passed in 1938.
  • 20th Amendment

    20th Amendment
    Decided the terms of the President and VP. The terms of the President and Vice President end noon, January 21st. Terms of Senators and Representatives end noon, January 3rd. VP becomes President if anything happens to current President.
  • The New Deal

    The New Deal
    President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life.
  • Share our wealth Plan

    Share our wealth Plan
    This was the program proposed by Senator Huey P. Long from Louisiana, one of the demagogues that appeared during the winter of 1933-1934. The program promised to make "Every Man a King." . This Plan used income tax to tax away large fortunes. It promised every family in the entire country: government use the money to guarantee every family $2,500/ yr, house, car, radio, college education, veterans pensions, and old age pensions.
  • Social Security Act

    Social Security Act
    Before the 1930s, support for the elderly was a matter of local, state and family rather than a Federal concern, However the widespread suffering caused by the Great Depression brought support for numerous proposals for a national old-age insurance system. The Social Security Act established a system of old-age benefits for workers, benefits for victims of industrial accidents, unemployment insurance, aid for dependent mothers and children, the blind, and the physically handicapped.
  • Operation Sealion

    Operation Sealion
    Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in WWII. The operation was never carried out because German naval forces were never able to achieve superiority over English forces. The Royal British Navy was too great.
  • The Battle of Britain

    The Battle of Britain
    The Battle of Britain was an air campaign waged between the Luftwaffe and the United Kingdom. Following the Battle of France, Hitler attempted to invade Britain. Significantly, Britain fought off the German attack and was considered the first major allied victory and was a crucial turning point in the war. Massive German losses. The battle resulted in the retained air superiority over Britain, Stopped German invasion.
  • Tuskegee Airmen

    Tuskegee Airmen
    Trained at the Tuskegee Army Air Field in Alabama, they were the first black military aviators in the U.S. Army Air Corps (Air Force). They flew more than 15,000 individual sorties in Europe and North Africa during World War II. Their impressive performance earned them more than 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses, and helped encourage the eventual integration of the U.S. armed forces.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    Pearl Harbor is a U.S. naval base near Honolulu, Hawaii, and was the scene of a devastating surprise attack by Japanese forces on December 7, 1941. Just before 8 a.m. on that Sunday morning, hundreds of Japanese fighter planes descended on the base, where they managed to destroy or damage nearly 20 American naval vessels, including eight enormous battleships, and over 300 airplanes. The day after the assault, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan.
  • Executive Order 9066

    Executive Order 9066
    Signed and issued during World War II by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the order allowed the removal of enemy (Japanese) aliens from parts of the West identified as military areas. As a result, over 120,000 Japanese people were forced to relocate to one of ten different internment camps around the United States.
  • Securities And Exchange Commission (SEC)

    Securities And Exchange Commission (SEC)
    The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent, federal government agency responsible for protecting investors, maintaining fair and orderly functioning of securities markets, and facilitating capital formation. The New Deal program that provided reparations in the stock market, protected people from fraud in investments in stocks. (still around today).
  • D Day

    D Day
    During WWII, around 156,000 American, British, and Canadian forces landed on 5 beaches along France's Normandy region. The invasion was one of the largest amphibious military assaults in history and required extensive planning. Before D-Day, the Allies misled the Germans about the intended invasion target. Allies attacked and gained a victory that became the turning point for World War II in Europe.
  • Battle of the Bulge

    Battle of the Bulge
    On this day, the Germans launch the last major offensive of the war, Operation Mist, also known as the Ardennes Offensive and the Battle of the Bulge, an attempt to push the Allied front line west from northern France to northwestern Belgium. The Battle of the Bulge, so-called because the Germans created a “bulge” around the area of the Ardennes forest in pushing through the American defensive line, was the largest fought on the Western front.
  • The Atomic Bomb

    The Atomic Bomb
    Powerful weapon that use nuclear reactions as their source of explosive energy developed during WWII. On this year (1945) on August 6th, an American B-29 bomber dropped the world's first atomic bomb over Hiroshima, Japanese. It wiped out 90% of the city population.
  • Yalta Conference

    Yalta Conference
    In 1945, the “Big Three” of World War II—Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston S. Churchill, and Josef Stalin—had not met since December 1943. Each man traveled to Yalta for different reasons. Roosevelt came because of his desire to create a United Nations before World War II ended. Churchill feared the growing power of the Soviet Union in a devastated Europe. Stalin was intent on protecting the Soviet Union against another German invasion.
  • Death of Franklin D. Roosevelt

    Death of Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Franklin Delano Roosevelt, War President of the United States and the only Chief Executive in history who was chosen for more than two terms, died suddenly and unexpectedly at 4:35 P. M. today at Warm Springs, Ga., and the White House announced his death at 5:48 o'clock. He was 63.The President, stricken by a cerebral hemorrhage, passed from unconsciousness to death on the eighty-third day of his fourth term and in an hour of high-triumph.
  • Potsdam Conference

    Potsdam Conference
    Held in Berlin, it was the last of the Big Three (Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Harry Truman) meetings during WWII. The agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union concerning the military occupation and reconstruction of Germany, its borders, and the entire European Theatre of War territory.
  • Period: to

    Transforming the West

  • Period: to

    Becoming an Industrial Power

  • Period: to

    The Gilded Age

  • Period: to


  • Period: to

    Progressive Era

  • Period: to

    World War I

  • Period: to

    World War I

  • Period: to


  • Period: to

    The Great Depression

  • Period: to

    World War II